History This ex-French territory, independent since 1960, soon formed a small air force. Aircraft are marked with a roundel and fin flash in the national colours of blue, (outer), yellow and green. From 1970 to 1982 aircraft of the Presidential Guard carried roundels with the colours marked in reverse.
History This small West African nation bears the national flag on its few military aircraft. This is red over blue over green with a thin white stripe dividing each colour.
History This ancient state became independent from Russia in May 1918. Throughout 1919 and into 1920 there was considerable British involvement, which resulted in military assistance, including the supply of aircraft. Italy also provided aircraft in late 1920. Some of these machines bore the 6th century Georgian insignia, a black cross, or possibly dark red, on a white disc, on fuselage sides and wings. This may have also included a thin black outline. Georgia was absorbed into the U.S.S.R. in February 1921. The country became independent again in 1991 and used ex-Soviet aircraft still bearing red stars. Aircraft carry a roundel of a seven pointed maroon star on a black bordered white disc. The so far unrecognised break away states of Abkhazia and South Ossetia have obtained some aircraft. More information is to be found under Abkhazia. After a change of flag in 2004 the star in the roundel has been gradually changed to bright red, as opposed to maroon, to follow the flag changes.
History The German Army obtained its first aeroplanes in 1910, and the German Navy in 1912. Before the First World War national markings consisted of a black stripe across each wing. A roundel in the national colours of red, white and black was considered but never implemented presumably because shape rather than colour was the important factor in identifying friend or foe. On 28 September 1914 German Army aircraft adopted a black Maltese cross insignia. This was displayed on the wings, fuselage and across the fin and rudder, and was outlined in white on a dark colour. This was marked on wings and rudder only. By 1915, however, the Maltese cross was also being applied to aircraft fuselages. On 15 April 1918 the cross was changed to a straight-edged, so-called 'Balkan' cross. Some Bavarian units adopted black and white striped fuselage markings and an all-black rudder. Germany's defeat in November 1918 led to the complete destruction of its air force, but by the late 1920s various clandestine attempts were being made to form a new air arm. These aircraft carried no national markings. After 1933 aircraft, military in all but name, were being marked with rudder stripes in the national colours of red, white and black on one side of the rudder and a red band bearing a black swastika on a white disc on the other. The straight crosses on wings and fuselage and the black swastika on the fin were the standard markings throughout the Second World War. As the war progressed many variations of this insignia were used. In 1945 the country was divided into four zones of occupation; 1949 saw the U.S. French and British zones become the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany), and the Soviet zone the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). Both Germanys used the same flag, a horizontal tricolour of black, red and yellow. A small air arm attached to the People's Police was formed in East Germany in 1950, and the East German Air Force proper was founded in 1955. Aircraft bore the national colours in the form of a diamond on wings and fin with a black border, but only occasionally on the fuselage. In 1959 the state arms were added to the flag and to the central, red portion of the insignia. This marking was abolished upon the unification of Germany in 1990. The West German Air Force was established in 1955 and aircraft carried the Maltese-type cross, which had last been used in early 1918. A fin flash of the national flag was marked on the fin. Naval aircraft bore an anchor device in a circle forward on the fuselage. West German markings have continued as the insignia of the unified German Air Force, since 1990.
History Formerly the British Gold Coast, Ghana was one of the first of the newly independent African states. In honour of the very first, Ethiopia, it chose that country's red, green and yellow as its national colours. With the formation of the Ghana Air Force in 1959, the national colours were adopted as a roundel. The black star, which was featured on the central, yellow part of the flag, was used as a fin marking. In 1964 the yellow part was changed to white on the flag and aircraft insignia for political reasons, and in 1965 the national flag replaced the black star on the fin. In 1966 the flag, roundel and fin flash reverted to yellow.
History Greek military aircraft took part in both the 1912 and 1913 Balkan wars. These machines carried blue and white stripes on the wingtips, the front stabilisers, and usually the tailplanes. During the First World War separate air arms for the army and navy were formed. The Army Air Corps was founded in September 1917 under French command and therefore used French markings; the British-led Navy Air Corps aircraft carried British markings. A roundel of blue, white and blue was used with these colours as rudder striping on the return of these forces to Greek command in June 1919. Up until the formation of the Royal Hellenic Air Force in 1931 the army and navy retained separate air arms. The army's insignia was the pale blue and white markings, but those of the navy were a darker blue, and often carried a black anchor on the rudder stripes. Since 1931 the pale blue and white marking has been carried on all aircraft, and since the 1960s a fin flash has been used. During the Second World War the Royal Air Force formed Greek units as 335 and 336 Squadrons. These carried a Greek flag as well as the normal RAF markings, and often featured blue and white spinners. On 1 February 1945 these aircraft reverted to the normal Greek markings.
History This small West Indian island became independent in 1974. In 1979 a Marxist government seized power, and in 1983 an air arm called the People's Revolutionary Government Air Wing was established. The island was invaded by the USA in 1983 and the air wing was disbanded. No national insignia was adopted.
History The origins of military aviation activity in Guatemala can be traced as far back as 1914. It was in 1923, however, that the Guatemalan Air Force was officially formed. Markings took the form of a white five-pointed star on a blue disc, with a small blue central disc. Rudder striping was vertical and blue, white and blue. This insignia is in use today. In 1929 some French aircraft were supplied with erroneous blue, white and blue roundels. During the period about 1939 to 1947 a six-pointed star was used, presumably to distinguish Guatemalan aircraft from those of the United States. Blue, white and blue stripes have been noted on the under wingtips of some aircraft.
History Guinea formed its air arm in 1959, soon after independence from France. It has always used a fin flash of the pan-African colours of red, yellow and green. A roundel form has been in use since about the mid-1980s.
History This ex-Portuguese colony became independent in 1974 and formed an air force, with Soviet assistance, in 1978. Its insignia consists of the black star of Africa on a red disc. The national flag is sometimes used as a fin flash.
History Once known as British Guiana, this South American country became independent in 1966. The Guyana Defence Force, with an Air Wing, was formed in 1968, the Air Command in 1970. The Command's insignia is a black, yellow and black roundel, the colours taken from the national flag. This flag is often used as a fin flash.