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Macedonia  
Macedonia  


History
   This republic, once a part of Yugoslavia, obtained its first aircraft in 1994. The insignia, a triangular design based on the red and yellow of the national flag was first used in 1998. The national flag is also used as a fin flash.

 

Madagascar  
Madagascar  


History
   This ex-French colony, a large Island in the Indian Ocean, formed its military aviation unit in 1961. The national flag of red and white for the Hova tribe and green for the Indian Ocean was used as a fin flash, and in roundel form on wings and fuselage. Often only the fin flash is used.
  

 

Malawi  
Malawi  


History
   Malawi, once called Nyasaland, founded its army air wing in 1966, two years after independence. Two flags are used as markings: the national flag of black, red and green and the army flag of red, black and red, with a white diamond. A red, black and green roundel is in use.

 

 

Malaysia  
Malaysia  


History
   Military aviation in this region dates from the formation of the Straits Settlements Volunteer Air Force in March 1936. This became the Malayan Volunteer Air Force in September 1940, and it took part in the campaign of 1941-2. On 1 October 1950 the Malayan Auxiliary Air Force was established, and this became the Royal Malayan Air Force on 1 June 1958. All these forces used normal RAF markings. 
   With independence, and a change of name to Malaysia, the Royal Malaysian Air Force was founded, with new markings, on 1 June 1963. This consisted of a pale blue square with a dark blue border. In the centre is a yellow fourteen-pointed star, representing the country's fourteen states. There is a fin flash in these three colours. In 1982 the square became a disc, and recent low-visibility requirements have resulted in a much smaller depiction of the markings.

 

  

Maldives  
Maldives  


History
   The small air component of the Maldives Defence Force uses a roundel of red and green based with a white crescent based on the national flag.

 

 

Mali  
Mali  


History
   The pan-African colours of red, yellow and green have been used on Mali's aircraft since the formation of its air force in 1961. Recently a roundel, smaller, has replaced the fin flash or rudder striping but identical to those used on the wings and fuselage.

 

  

Malta  
Malta  


History
   Although helicopters were acquired for the Malta Land Force in 1972, it was not until April 1973 that they came under the authority of the First Regiment of the Armed Forces of Malta. They then carried the insignia of the regiment, a roundel of red over blue with a white '1' superimposed. 
   In April 1980 aircraft became part of the Malta Task Force and adopted a white over red disc bearing the black letters 'TF'. In 1988 the units reverted to the command of the First Regiment and the 1973-80 marking. Some also carried a Maltese national flag. In 1992 a red and white roundel with a black representation of the George Cross in the centre was adopted, with the national flag as a fin flash.

 

  

Mauritania  
Mauritania   


History
   Since its formation in 1961 aircraft of the Mauritanian Air Force have been marked with the national flag: green, with a yellow star and crescent. This was originally in square format, but a roundel has appeared from the late 1980s.
  

Mauritius  
Mauritius  


History
   Various government aircraft of this small Indian Ocean island have recently adopted a roundel version of the national flag; this is red (outer), blue, yellow and green.

 

  

Mexico  
Mexico  


History
   Mexican aircraft have always worn a representation of the national colours of red, white and green. It is not generally known that Mexico was one of the earliest countries in the world to use aircraft for military purposes, dating back to 1911. The air corps was formed in 1914, and by 1915 had adopted a shield marking in the national colours. In about 1920 this was changed to wing striping or standard roundels in the national colours. A triangular insignia for wings and fuselage became usual by 1922, together with rudder striping. The Mexican Expeditionary Force in the Pacific in 1945 used these markings alongside American insignia. Over recent years the Mexican Navy has obtained aircraft and marked them with either one or two crossed anchors, in either black or white, behind the triangular insignia. 
   After the Second World War there was a suggested change to a roundel split vertically with the national colours, but it is very unlikely that this was ever used.

 

  

Moldova  
Moldova   


History
   This ex-Soviet republic, bordering on Romania, formed an air force after independence in 1991. Aircraft bear a red eight-pointed star edged with yellow and blue on a white disc. There have also been unconfirmed reports of a segmented roundel in red, yellow and blue. See also Transnistria.

 

 

Mongolia  
Mongolia

 


History
   Mongolia obtained its first military aircraft in 1925, supplied by the Soviet Union. They probably carried normal Soviet insignia. By the mid-1930s Mongolian aircraft were carrying a traditional Buddhist ideogram called the 'zoyombo'. This comprised many elements including bravery, friendship, and the symbolism of the yin and yang. The zoyombo was marked on the fin and occasionally on the fuselage and was usually in red or yellow depending on the background colour. Soviet red stars were often carried in addition. Aircraft marked in this way took part in conflicts with Japanese forces from 1938 until 1945. After the war and the disruption of the Chinese civil war, Mongolia came even more within the Soviet sphere and aircraft tended to carry a simple red star, possibly surrounded by a thin red ring. The zoyombo returned in the early 1960s, usually marked in red on the fin and in yellow on a red star on the Wings. This is now marked in red on the fin only or, usually on helicopters, marked in yellow over the original red star. Since 1992 the red star element of the zoyombo has been discarded.

 

  

Montenegro  
Montenegro  


History
   Previously a republic within Yugoslavia, Montenegro became fully independent in 2007. Its military aircraft carry a yellow bordered red disc.The insignia of military aircraft of Montenegro was changed in 2011. It now consists of a version of the yellow cross of St. George, a very ancient Balkan symbol. This is surrounded by a red ring and features side bars of three red lines. 

 

  

Morocco  
Morocco  


History
Since its formation in 1956, the Moroccan Air Force has used the national flag of red with an open, green, five-pointed star known as Solomon's Seal as a fin flash. The wing and fuselage marking is a roundel version, the star being topped with a green and yellow crown for the monarchy. The Naval Gendarmerie used a roundel of red and blue with a black anchor and topped with a red star. Aircraft of the Moroccan navy use the normal roundel backed with two crossed anchors. 

 

 

Mozambique  
Mozambique  


History
   This ex-Portuguese colony became independent in 1975 and formed an armed combat air force by 1976. Markings are based on the national flag and consist of a black disc containing a red triangle. On this are various designs: a book for education, a hoe for agriculture, and a rifle for the fight for independence. Aircraft are marked above and below the wings and on the fin. There is occasional use of the national flag as a fin flash and recently just bore the badge of the air force.

 

  

Myanmar  
Myanmar

 


History
   Previously known as Burma, this country formed the Union of Burma Air Force in 1955. Burma became a separate country within the Commonwealth in 1937 and established a small volunteer air unit before the Second World War. Aircraft bore normal RAF markings with distinctive serial numbers. This unit was disbanded in 1942 and the country became fully independent in 1948. Unusually, the national colours are not used as a basis for the air force insignia; instead, the colours of the air force ensign are used. These are blue, white and yellow and are marked on the wings and fuselage in triangular form, and as a square fin flash.