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Pakistan  
Pakistan  


History
   Pakistan was formed with the partition of India In 1947 and the air force consisted of a proportion of the old Indian Air Force. The initially proposed national flag was plain green with a white star and crescent, the air force insignia being a green disc similarly marked. However, mindful of non-Muslim minorities a white band was added to the flag, and a plain white and green roundel became the air force marking. There is no evidence that the original marking was ever used. The fin flash has always been a green square bearing a white star and crescent. Both roundel and fin flash have often been outlined in yellow. Aircraft of the Pakistan Navy have featured a black anchor across the roundel.

 

  

Panama  
Panama  


History
   Panama's first attempt at forming an air arm was in 1931. Aircraft bore a red and white roundel with 'R de P' in blue. A blue and white marking with 'GN 31' on the white was carried on the fin. Presumably this indicated Guarda Nacional 1931. The 'R de P' marking continued in use during the 1930's, but military aviation in Panama became moribund by 1939. Another attempt was made after the Second World War and some aircraft bore the national flag as a fin marking. 
   The first modern Panamanian military air arm was formed in 1964. Aircraft were marked with a roundel and bar US - type insignia on the wings as a representation of the red, white and blue national flag. Rudders were painted horizontally red, white and blue with a red and a blue star on the white.

 

  

Papua New Guinea  
Papua New Guinea  


History
   The Papua New Guinea Defence Force was formed in 1974 and its aircraft carry a roundel form of the national flag. This is red, black and green with a yellow bird of paradise on the green. A bird of paradise in flight is sometimes marked on the fin.

 

  

Paraguay  
Paraguay

 

 


History
   It was not until the late 1920s that Paraguay formed its first military aviation units, although aircraft had been involved in the 1922 revolution. Aircraft of the 1930s carried a red, white and blue roundel, or on Fiat CR 20s, diagonal chord-wise wing stripes. There was no fuselage marking and rudders were painted horizontally red, white and blue with a yellow star on the white. The roundel and rudder markings have remained the same with some slight differences. Modern aircraft carry a fuselage roundel and tend towards a fin flash of the national flag, as opposed to rudder striping. During the 1947 civil war government aircraft used stripes on wings and fuselage to distinguish themselves from the rebels. These used roundel marked aircraft. A crudely painted black 'V' was painted next to the wing roundels and on the fuselage. 
   Paraguayan Navy aircraft of the 1950s bore black anchors instead of roundels on wings and omitted the yellow star on the rudder. Modern navy aircraft have a black anchor marked over the roundel.

  

Peru  
Peru  


History
   Peru made its first attempts at forming a military air arm as early as 1912, but it was 1920 before this became viable. The nation's colours of red and white have always been used in roundel form and as vertical rudder stripes. Around 1930 aircraft of the Peruvian army had three red and three white vertical stripes as a rudder marking. More modern aircraft have used fin flashes. Navy aircraft have a black anchor incorporated into the roundel. Aircraft of the Peruvian Army have replaced the central red spot of the roundel with a triangle, or, more recently carried a superimposed yellow sword.

 

  

Philippines  
Philippines  


History
   The Philippines Army Air Corps was established on 2 May 1935 while the country was still a dependency of the United States. Its aircraft were marked on wings, fuselage and fin with a blue and white bordered blue diamond. The corps was amalgamated with the U.S. Army Air Corps on 15 August 1941 and was disbanded after the Japanese occupation.
Re-formed as the Philippines Air Force on 3 July 1947 the diamond marking, now with an outer red border, was flanked by intricate white bars with blue borders.

 

  

Poland  
Poland  


History
   The national colours of red and white were adopted by Poland in 1831 and formed the basis of the national flag on independence in 1918. Early in 1918 the 1st Polish Corps formed a small, virtually independent area of Russia. Its aircraft were marked with a square split diagonally reddish brown and white. Officially the Polish Air Force became operational in November 1918, but owing to the chaotic situation prevailing in the area, the three airfields of Warsaw, Lwow and Krakow adopted their own individual versions of a red and white insignia. Many ex-German aircraft had their black crosses obliterated by a red and white circle. An official Polish insignia was introduced on 1 December 1918, but before that Warsaw used a red and white shield, split diagonally, Lwow red and white striped wingtips and rudder, and Krakow a red 'Z' on a white square. 
   The first all-Polish insignia was a chequerboard design in red and white. This was initially in four plain squares but soon acquired a contrasting red and white border. During the period up to 1920 British and French aircraft were obtained, many of which retained some of their original markings. Some British aircraft had red, white and blue rudder striping, later changed to red over white, some French aircraft bore French roundels on the port wing and Polish insignia on the starboard and painted over the original rudder stripes, The insignia in use by 1921 remained unchanged until the destruction of the air force In 1939. The aircraft of Polish airmen who escaped to fight for France often carried the insignia on fuselage sides in place of the French roundel. Those that went on to form Polish squadrons of the R.A.F, carried small versions of the square insignia in addition to normal British markings. 
   With the return to sovereignty in 1945, the pre-war insignia was reintroduced, Although Poland became a communist country, it seems to have resisted any moves to adopt a marking based on the red star. Some aircraft during the 1950s used just the red part of the insignia. With the advent of democracy, the Polish national marking remains unchanged. Aircraft of the Polish Border Guard used a circular version of the national insignia.
Silesia 
   There was conflict over Silesia in 1921 which was resolved by a referendum which returned the area to Germany, The Polish-Silesian armed forces in this conflict were actually Polish regular troops, Aircraft of the 'Silesian' Air Force carried markings of a pale blue square with a black border on the port wing, and white with a black border on the starboard. Rudders were painted white, pale blue and black.

 

  

Portugal  
Portugal  


History
   Portuguese military aviation dates from 1912, but the official army and navy air corps were established on 1 October 1916. Initially a red and green roundel and rudder striping were used. By the time of the formation of the First Air Group on 15 December 1917, a special form of a red and white cross was in use with the national flag as a fin flash. The cross has since been marked on a white square or, far more frequently, a white disc. During the Second World War some aircraft dispensed with the white background. 
   The army and navy aviation amalgamated on 1 July 1952 and since then it has been usual to leave out the coat of arms from the national flag marking, leaving a simple red and green flash. The need for low visibility has considerably reduced the size of the markings in recent years, and they are now often used as a grey outline only.