Independence for this east African country came in 1962 when a Police Air Wing was formed. Aircraft carried the national flag, a number of red, yellow and black horizontal stripes with, in the centre, a white disc bearing an illustration of the crested crane, Uganda's national emblem. An air force was formed in 1964 and at various times aircraft have been marked with a many variations of a roundel version of the national flag, either as circles or, more rarely, as horizontal stripes.
This country seized its independence as the Ukrainian People's Republic in the wake of the Russian Revolution in 1917. German forces invaded Ukraine in April 1918 and set up a puppet state, the West Ukrainian People's Republic. These two countries fought each other and, after the German defeat, were in conflict with the new Soviet Union, the White Russians and Poland. Known markings were all blue and yellow, and are taken from the colours of the old Austrian province of Galicia, which once covered most of what became Ukraine. Some aircraft flew in the old Tsarist colours of red, white and blue, but later overpainted these in blue and yellow.
By early 1919 Ukraine had adopted an ancient and traditional Ataman Cossack trident design, the tryzub. This was used in various forms e.g. plain black, plain yellow, and yellow on a blue square. The Ukrainian national flag of blue over yellow was also used, occasionally in chequerboard form. The West Ukrainian Air Force used the same colours as a roundel and even a yellow skull and crossbones on a blue bordered white disc. Some, presumably naval units, bore a superimposed black anchor. The Red Ukrainian Air Fleet was formed in February 1919, but became part of the Soviet air force in May and probably carried a red star. Ukraine was absorbed into the Soviet Union in 1921.
With the break up of the U.S.S.R. in 1991, Ukraine once more became independent. Aircraft wear blue and yellow roundels. The trident came into use in yellow on a blue shield as a fin marking or on the sides of some helicopters. There are some reports of an initial chevron design. Some aircraft of the Ukrainian Navy use a black anchor on the roundel.
|United Arab Emirates|
The United Arab Emirates were formely known as the Trucial States and gained their present name in December 1971. Abu Dhabi had formed its air force in 1968. Its aircraft were marked with a red, white and sand roundel, the red area carrying 'Abu Dhabi' in black Arabic script.The red and white national flag appeared as a fin flash.
Dubai created the Police Air Wing, later the Defence Force Air Wing in 1971. Initially aircraft carried the arms of the sheikdom in red on a white square as a fuselage marking. By 1974 this had changed to a red and white roundel with the arms in the centre. The red and white Dubai flag was used as a fin flash.
From the formation of the joint command of the Emirates forces in 1976, the fin flash was changed to that of the United Emirates. Although Abu Dhabi and Dubai have some autonomy, all aircraft now carry the U.A.E. insignia. Sharjah, the only other emirate with its own forces, formed an air wing in 1984. Aircraft have always carried U.A.E. insignia. This is a roundel of green, white and black with a red segment across the green and white. The national flag is carried as a fin flash.
The Royal Engineers formed the first Air Battalion in 1911. In May 1912 the Royal Flying Corps was established with army and navy sections. By 1913 the Navy had formed its own Royal Naval Air Service, and, in April 1918, these two forces amalgamated to form the Royal Air Force.
Early aircraft marked their ownership with a Union Jack painted on the rudder. It was with this marking that the first aircraft landed in France in August 1914, on the outbreak of war. On 26 October 1914 an instruction was issued to mark wings, fuselage and fin with the union flag. By late 1914 it became obvious that shape rather than colour was the dominating factor in differentiating friend from foe. It was therefore decided to adopt the French system of a three colour roundel. From 11 December 1914 aircraft would carry a roundel with the colours in reverse order to the French. Naval aircraft often used the French order to distinguish them from the Flying Corps. They also continued to use a Union Jack on the rudder.
Officially, as from 16 May 1915, the Royal Naval Air Service adopted a red and white roundel but this was only temporary. By early 1916 all British aircraft carried roundels with a red centre and rudder striping with the blue leading. This marking continued with very little change until 1937. The notable exception was the introduction of red and blue roundels for night use.
The increasing tension in Europe by 1937 saw the introduction of camouflage to aircraft. Initially roundels were outlined in yellow, but this soon gave way to red and blue roundels above the wings and yellow surrounds on the fuselage only. After the outbreak of war in 1939, markings were standardised to a normal roundel under the wings, a red and blue roundel above, a normal roundel outlined in yellow on the fuselage, and a red, white and blue fin flash, the red leading.
From July 1942 the yellow surrounds and the white portions of the markings were considerably reduced in size. Except for aircraft operating in the Far East this system was maintained until 1947. During the Japanese invasion of 1941-2 aircaft wore standard insignia. South East Asia Command was formed in 1942 to integrate all Allied units. The marking was a roundel and fin flash in dark and light blue in a smaller size than normal. Some Royal Navy squadrons in this theatre used roundels and fin flashes of various designs but always with the red eliminated. Some U.S. supplied aircraft retained the American blue and white side bars.
Current roundels and fin markings in red, white and blue, date from 1947. The roundel differed from pre-war by having a larger central red spot. In the early 1970s camouflage experiments resulted in smaller red and blue roundels. Since the 1980s these have often been marked in a very toned down shades of pale blue and pink.
The United Nations Charter was signed in 1945 and the flag - white laurel wreaths and a globe on a blue background was adopted on 20 October 1947,
It has always been one of the main points of the charter that member countries would supply military equipment, as necessary, to restore order or bring help to troubled areas around the world. The first instance was in the aftermath of the Israeli war of independence of 1948.
U.N. aircraft are normally painted white overall and carry the large black lettering 'UNITED NATIONS' or 'UN', and the flag as a fin flash. Camouflaged aircraft carry the lettering on a white or pale blue panel. There has been some use of the United Nations emblem as a wing roundel, and recently an increasing use of the national flag of the donor country, usually marked on a fin, smaller than that of the U.N.
The original flag of Uruguay, until 1828, was a horizontal tricolour of blue, white and blue, with a broad red diagonal band. Rudder striping and a roundel version of this flag have been used on Uruguayan aircraft since the formation of the air force in 1916.
In 1924, a naval air arm was formed which used the modern Uruguayan flag as a rudder marking, This is nine blue and white horizontal lines, representing the original nine provinces, with a white quarter containing the independence emblem, the 'Sun of May'. These aircraft also carry black or white anchors inboard of the air force roundels,
Since 1954, in common with many other Latin American countries, Uruguay has marked its wing insignia above the port and below the starboard. From the early 1990s it has been usual to use a flag fin flash rather than rudder markings.
The Aeronautical Division of the U.S. Army Signal Corps was established in August 1907, but progress was slow. The army and navy owned very few aircraft by 1914. Until 1917, ownership of aircraft was established by a rudder insignia. This was a red five-pointed star for the army and a blue anchor for the navy, which was also carried below the wingtips. From May 1917, regulations for insignia for both services were standardised. This was a wing marking of a white star on a blue disc with a red centre spot.
Rudders would be vertically striped red, white and blue, the blue leading. This marking continued in use in the U.S.A. during and after the war.
With the involvement of the United States in the First World War, the pilots of the American Expeditionary Force arrived in France and used aircraft of French or British manufacture. From 11 January 1918 these would be marked following Allied practice, that is a three-colour roundel, but in the order red, blue and, in the centre, white, With the return of the AEF, in 1919, the roundel form was no longer used, Rudder striping of Expeditionary Force aircraft was the reverse of those based in the USA, that is the red stripe leading, although some have been recorded with striping to match the roundel, that is white leading, then blue, then red.
From 1927 the army changed the rudder marking to seven red and six White horizontal stripes, with a vertical blue stripe next to the hinge. Naval aircraft were devoid of rudder markings until the army stripes were adopted in 1941. Rudder markings were discontinued for all aircraft from 1942.
Following the practice of other Allied air forces; US aircraft eliminated the red part of their insignia. A plain white star on a blue disc, usually above the port wing and below the starboard, was used from May 1942. Aircraft participating in Operation Torch, the invasion of North Africa, outlined their markings in yellow. By 1943 it was apparent that shape more than colour was a deciding factor in aircraft recognition. This was especially true in the Pacific theatre. Bars were added to the roundel and for a brief period the whole insignia was outlined in red. By the end of 1943 a blue outline was standardised. The basic shape and positioning of insignia was normal for other Allied aircraft operating in the region. A red stripe to the bar began to appear from 1945 but became official from 16 June 1947.
During the war in Vietnam there was a requirement for a low-visibility insignia. This was achieved by a considerable reduction in size. The current trend in low-visibility markings has meant that the insignia has changed to a pale grey colour and then to a simple black outline.
Two other American organisations have used special aircraft markings, The United States Marine Corps has always used standard U.S. insignia, but in 1918 a small version of the A.E.F. roundel was marked on the fuselage side over a unique anchor design. Between 1935 and 1941 the U.S. Coast Guard marked the rudders of their aircraft in a distinct way by painting the top third of the rudder blue, then below this three vertical red stripes on a white background. No wing markings were carried, only the letters 'U.S.C.G.'.
The national colours of blue (outer), white and green in roundel form with a thin red line between the colours is used on aircraft from this Central Asian republic since independence in 1991. This colour scheme is often striped across the fin.