Venezuela's air force was first established in 1920 and used the national flag -a horizontal tricolour of yellow, blue and red - as rudder striping and roundels for wings and fuselage. Since about 1956 bars in three colours have been added to the roundels and it has been normal practice to mark them above the port wing and below the starboard. The blue, central area of the rudder marking bears a semi-circle of seven white stars for the original seven provinces of the country. Low-visibility markings on camouflaged aircraft are reduced in size, while the rudder markings have been discontinued. Some aircraft now bear the national flag as a fuselage marking.
Naval aircraft have reverted to the pre-1956 roundel and also carry a black anchor on a white panel.
Once part of French Indo-China, Vietnam formed its first air arm, under French supervision, in 1950. Aircraft were marked with an orange disc bearing three concentric red circles. The fin marking was an orange square with three red lines, the national flag. After the French withdrawal, in 1954, the country was divided into Northern and Southern zones. The Southern Zone began to receive aid from the United States and, by 1962, the wing and fuselage marking was changed to a U.S. type. The fin marking remained unchanged. The new roundel was a white star on a blue disc with side bars of orange and a red stripe. The whole insignia was surrounded with a red border. The Northern Zone adopted a national flag of plain red with a yellow five pointed star. The initial aircraft marking was a red bordered yellow star. Some aircraft have been reported with a plain yellow star, often as a fin marking. Occasionally captured American aircraft carried the Viet Cong flag, red over blue with a yellow star. By about 1970 North Vietnam placed the yellow star on a red disc with red side bars, all surrounded with yellow.
Unified Vietnam, from 1975, used the North Vietnamese marking or the national flag.