This breakaway region of Georgia declared its independence 23 July 1992, but has not been recognised by any country. In the late 1990s are number of aircraft were reported bearing the hand and stars on a red disc with the green and white stripes as side bars with the red and yellow national emblem as a fin marking. Its few aircraft carry the national flag. The hand is an ancient symbol of the Abkhazian people since the 13th century. The number seven is a part of their tradition, which accounts for the number of stripes. Since 2008 a roundel version of the national flag has been used. South Ossetia is another seperatist part of Georgia but does not seem to possess any aircraft.
The first military aircraft arrived in Afghanistan from Russia in 1921, but the air arm was not officially established until 22 August 1924. Its few aircraft were destroyed in the revolution of 1929, and a new force was not reformed until 1937.
During the early period, aircraft, mostly of Russian origin, bore the Muslim-based arms of Afghanistan in black on white, and the legend 'Allah U Akbar' (God is Great) below the wings, along with the Afghan flag, or coat of arms. Mohammed Nadir Shah, the victor in the 1929 insurrection, changed Afghanistan's colours from largely red to red, green and black, symbolising bloodshed for independence, hope for the future, and the country's dark past. These colours were carried as rudder stripes. There is some evidence of a four-colour roundel - black, red, green with a white centre. This central spot was inscribed with the phrase 'Allah u Akbar'. The use of this marking is very unlikely.
On its reorganisation in 1937, aircraft were released from British stocks in India. The British roundels were over painted in Afghan colours. Additionally some aircraft may have sported red, green and black stripes across wings.
The Royal Afghan Air Force was officially formed in 1948, and the roundel continued in use until about 1967. In the early 1950s the rudder striping gave way to a similarly marked fin flash. In 1967 a new insignia consisting of a three colour segmented triangle within a white circle, carried on wings, fuselage and fin, was adopted. The white surround featured various Arabic inscriptions. These were usually the initials of the Afghan National Army. The monarchy was overthrown in 1973 and the country fell further within the Soviet sphere of influence. The triangular insignia apparently continued in use until the Russian invasion of 1979. A red disc with yellow inscriptions was adopted, and later, in 1983, a red star within a circle of the Afghan national colours. Since the complete breakdown of government within the country in the early 1990s, the triangle form has reappeared on Kabul-based aircraft, with or without the inscriptions. Other dissident groups' aircraft have carried their own markings. Many of these were discovered during the Allied invasion of 2002. Examples were as follows: - Possible Taliban aircraft carried roundels of black, white, green and white on wings and fin. Others noted used a green roundel, sometimes edged in black, with a small white spot or various white inscriptions. The Northern Alliance, which assisted the Allied forces, used the triangular marking with white instead of the red segment. The 1967 to 1979 triangular segment in three colours is now in current use. In 2010 the name was changed to the Afghan National Army Air Force. This necessitated a change in the inscriptions.
An attempt was made to form an Albanian Air Corps on the country's formation in 1914. This did not come to fruition and, owing to the country's poor economic condition; an air force was not formed until 1946.
Although very much under Soviet influence the first proposed idea for an aircraft marking was the black two-headed eagle of Albania on a red disc, topped with a yellow outline star. There is, however, no record of this being used. The earliest evidence is of a red star on a black disc, with a red, black and red fin flash, the black area bearing a red star. This fin marking was first horizontal, later vertical. For a period in the late 1950s a red and black roundel was used, occasionally with a red star on the fin. From about 1960 the usual form of marking was a red and black roundel with a red star on the inner black area. This was used on the wings and fuselage, and eventually on the fin.
In 1993, after the fall of the communist regime, the red star marking was discontinued and a representation of the Albanian national flag considered. There is no evidence of this use. A red, black and red roundel is in current use.
The Armee de I'air Algerienne was formed on the country's gaining independence in 1962. The markings used were simply the new Algerian flag as a roundel on wings and fuselage and as a flag on the fin. This consisted of two halves, green and white, with a red star and crescent superimposed. For a short period, during the early 1960s, bars of red, white and green were marked each side of the roundel. The roundel is now often seen with aa thin blue border.
This ex-Portuguese colony gained its independence in 1975 and was immediately plunged into a long and devastating civil war. Military equipment, including modern aircraft, was supplied, mostly from the U.S.S.R. These Soviet aircraft were flown by Cuban and East German pilots.
The Angolan flag has always been divided horizontally red over black; the red represents liberation, and the black, Africa. The initial aircraft marking was a horizontal rudder striping in the national colours of red, black and yellow. Up until about 1980 the national flag was superimposed with a yellow star, but since then the design has been a machete for the agricultural workers, linked with a cogwheel for the nation's industry. These changes were mirrored in the national aircraft markings. Initially wings and fuselage were marked with a red and black roundel, with a yellow star on the inner part. The Angolan flag served as a fin marking. The design in use from about 1987 until the late 1990s was a roundel split by a wavy line, red over black, and bearing a yellow star. Since then the star has been omitted and the roundel outlined in yellow.
The air force of Argentina was first formed as the Servicio Aeronautico Ejercito on 10 August 1912. The white and pale blue colours of the 1816 revolution were used in roundel form from about 1919. The rudder marking, or fin flash, was a representation of the Argentine flag which bore, on the white section, a yellow 'Sun of May', a reference to the sun shining on the morning of the successful revolution of 25 May 1810. The navy formed its Comando de Aviacion Naval Argentina on 17 October 1919. This air arm dispensed with the roundel but kept the tail markings. Wings were marked with a large anchor in either black or white, depending on the background colour. On a few aircraft a red anchor on the wings or across the roundel has been noted. The navy and the army kept their separate markings until the formation of the Argentine Air Force on 4 January 1945. Circa 1960 a new navy roundel was designed. This consisted of a white disc with a thin blue-white-blue border. Charged on the large white centre was a design of a black anchor, a yellow sun, and the red 'Cap of Liberty'. This was used frequently, but not always on fuselage sides only. Naval aircraft retained the wing anchors and flag fin flash. Army and air force aircraft continued to use the roundels and fin flash, although army helicopters rarely use roundels. Some aircraft captured by rebels during the 1955 revolution carried V+ and overpainted the roundels with MR; all these crudely painted in red.
Argentina possesses a number of paramilitary organisations which use aircraft. The Gendarmeria Nacional uses normal markings. The Perfectura Naval uses normal fin flashes and a symbol of two crossed anchors in black or white, depending on the background colour. Some provincial police forces use aircraft marked with a standard fin flash and the provincial arms. These aircraft carry civil registrations.
Armenia gained independence as the Erivan Republic after the First World War. Its short period of freedom was spent in conflict with Russia, Turkey and its Caucasian neighbours. It is believed that some aircraft were obtained in October 1920, but as the country was occupied by the U.S.S.R. in November, it is highly unlikely that these aircraft were used, let alone painted in national markings.
Armenia became independent again in 1991 and was immediately in conflict with Azerbaijan. Ex-Soviet aircraft were used, still bearing red stars. The original roundel seems to have been in three colours, red, blue and yellow. This was soon followed by the addition of a white, central, disc The present marking consists of a roundel of the national colours. These have been noted in various orders but the usually accepted sequence is red (outer), then blue, orange and white (inner). On some photographs of earlier aircraft the outer ring is yellow.
The Australian Flying Corps was established in January 1913 and saw its first action in New Guinea in 1914. By 1915 a contingent of the corps was in action in Mesopotamia. The Australian Air Corps of 1920 became the Australian Air Force in March 1921 and the Royal Australian Air Force in June 1921. During this time standard Royal Air Force markings were used.
In June 1942 it was decided to paint out the centre red markings to avoid confusion with Japanese insignia. This situation continued until the end of the Pacific war. In 1947 the centre red circle of the British markings was, on the fuselage only, replaced with a red kangaroo marking, This marking was also used on the wings after a regulation of 26 September 1956, British rudder stripes or fin flashes were used throughout the history of the RAAF except for the 1942-45 period when the red was eliminated.
From the late 1980s on some combat aircraft a low-visibility marking of a simple black or outline kangaroo has been used.
Aircraft of the Royal Australian Navy from 1948 and of the Army Air Corps from 1 July 1968 conform to normal Australian usage.
The Imperial Austro-Hungarian Air Service was officially formed on 9 August 1914, Aircraft were marked with the old national colours of Austria red, white and red -across the wingtips and on the rudder. By 1915 the German 'cross pattee' was marked in addition to these stripes. This cross marking was soon adopted as the only marking on all but naval aircraft, The only differences between Austrian and German aircraft were that the former seldom used the white border to the cross, and had a different system of serial numbers, Austro-Hungarlan naval aircraft continued to mark the red and white stripes as well as the cross insignia and, on the white portion of the rudder, the imperial coat of arms. Some even added the colours and emblem of the Kingdom of Hungary.
During the period following the end of the First World War, Austrian aircraft were in action against the fledgling Yugoslav air arm over the Carinthia region. Some aircraft carried the red, white and red stripes on wings and rudder, while others bore a thin black saltire cross on the fin and rudder, in addition to the Austro-Hungarian black crosses.
Austria did not possess an air arm between 1919 and it's re-forming in 1936. Then, the marking chosen was a white triangle inside a red disc. Rudders were marked red, white and red. The paramilitary police used a roundel split horizontally in the national colours. Austria was absorbed into Germany in 1938 and did not form an air force again until 1955. The triangle in a roundel was revived, but without rudder markings. The Austrian flag saw occasional use as a fin flash.
This small Caucasian nation was independent from 1918 until April 1920. In March 1920 a number of aircraft were obtained from General Denikin's White Army and may have carried Denikin's blue triangle markings. It is very unlikely that specific Azerbaijani markings were used.
Independent again from 1991 ex-Soviet aircraft, bearing red stars, have been used in combat with Armenian forces. The original roundel was blue, red, and green with a white star and crescent on centre. Azerbaijan military aircraft now use a blue, red and green roundel, split horizontally and superimposed with a white star and crescent.